More about the Bible

The Structure and Purpose of the Gospels

Every document has a literary form, which is a document structure that is designed to convey a specific kind of information. It can give us hints about the writer’s purpose and the kind of information that’s in the document. Here are three examples:

What is the Literary Form of a Gospel?

Today, we never hear a rumor that a war might be going on somewhere, because these days, communication between any two places on earth is virtually instantaneous.

In ancient times, there could actually be rumors of wars, because it wasn’t possible to check the newspaper or a news website, or switch to a news channel on television to find out if the war was actually going on. It could take days, weeks, or even months for people to find out that their country was in fact at war, whether the war was over, and whether their side won. To inform the public, the authorities posted public notices, which correspond to modern press releases. The notice was good news that the war was over and there was a new king. It explained the humble origins of the new king, recounted all the difficulties he had to overcome, and explained how he came to sit upon the throne. It would also extol the virtues of the new king. This literary form wasn’t a biography. The purpose of the document was to get people to admire, accept, and obey the new king.

That might sound familiar to you, because the gospels closely resemble those ancient “press releases.” John even says outright, in two places, that the purpose of the gospel is not to tell us all the details, but just to give us enough information so that we can have faith in Jesus Christ. The gospels aim to make us disciples, not teachers.

Outlining the Gospels

You can go to a Christian bookstore and buy a book that contains outlines of biblical books. They are all different from each other in some way, but that increases their value, because they give you a different overall view. The New Testament books are short enough that you can even go through one and outline it yourself. It’s a good method of Bible study.

That’s we outline documents in our day. What outline did the gospel writers use to write the gospels?

The Outline that Ancient Greek Writers Used

In the New Testament era, Greek books and dramas were written with an Χ-shaped outline—but that’s the Greek chi, not the Latin letter X. Think of it as a diagram of the plot; it’s the shape of an hourglass. The story begins in a broad context, then the main character’s movements and actions are increasingly constrained until it reaches a turning point. In Greek literature, the turning point is called the “crisis.” Then the story broadens more and more until the conclusion. The writer might add have an prologue before the action begins, to set the scene, and an epilogue after the conclusion, to draw conclusions or sum things up.

The outline of the gospels

Chi outline

The literary form of a document guides you into understanding its content and the writer's intent, and that's true for the gospels as well.

The structure of the gospels is the same as an ancient “press release” that announces the end of a war. The purpose of the gospels is to motivate us to have faith in Jesus Christ, the victorious king, and to obey His commandments. Both the "press release" and the gospels reassure us that the King is seated on his throne, has begun his reign, and reigns right now.

If a human king needed to leave his kingdom to go to a faraway place, he'd appoint a regent to rule in his place. When he returns, the regent would transfer the authority back to the king. Such a thing would not occur right after his victory and ascension when the “press release” is written and released.

The gospels also do not combine the glad news of Jesus' victory with the sad news of His absence and the uncertainty about a regent whom we do not know. Since He is not absent (Matthew 28:20), He does not need a regent and did not appoint one. He reigns right now. When He returns, there will be no transfer of authority back to the King, because He never gave it up.

A human king has all power and authority. He appoints messengers, leaders, and administrators to carry out his will. They answer to him as the final authority. Likewise, Jesus has all power and authority. He has commissioned the church with messengers, leaders, and administrators to carry out His will and answer to Him. They answer to Him as the final authority.

The Holy Spirit chose this literary form for the gospels to convey His message. Studying the form helps us understand its content.

Related Articles

Who Wrote the New Testament?